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Understanding Business Structures in Australia: A Guide for Small Business Owners

Small Business Owner working in his office

Choosing the right business structure is a foundational decision for every small business owner in Australia. This choice influences a multitude of factors including tax liabilities, personal liability, and the capacity for future growth. For small business owners in Australia there are several structures, each with its unique set of characteristics, advantages, and potential drawbacks. Understanding these options is crucial for any entrepreneur looking to navigate the complexities of business ownership successfully. In this guide, we'll explore the different business structures available to small business owners in Australia, delving into the nature of each and concluding with why seeking advice from an accountant is indispensable.

Sole Trader

Beginning as a sole trader represents the most straightforward path into business ownership. It's characterised by its simplicity, requiring minimal paperwork and allowing individuals to start their ventures with less regulatory and financial burden. As a sole trader, the business is owned and controlled by one person, who is solely responsible for all aspects of the business. This structure uses the owner's personal tax file number for tax purposes, making tax preparation relatively straightforward since business income is treated as personal income.

However, the simplicity of being a sole trader comes with the significant downside of unlimited liability. This means that if the business fails, the owner's personal assets could be at risk to cover the business's debts. Additionally, sole traders may find it challenging to raise capital and might face limitations in terms of business growth.


A partnership, on the other hand, involves two or more individuals (up to 20) who agree to run a business together. This structure necessitates a partnership agreement that specifies the distribution of profits, roles, and responsibilities among the partners. Partnerships offer the advantage of shared financial commitment and the pooling of skills, knowledge, and resources, potentially leading to a stronger business foundation.

Despite these benefits, partnerships also carry the risk of joint and several liabilities, where each partner can be held responsible for the debts of the partnership as a whole. This can complicate personal financial planning and potentially lead to disputes among partners. Moreover, the necessity to share profits can reduce the earnings for individual partners, posing a significant consideration for those entering into such an agreement.


Forming a company introduces a structure where the business is considered a separate legal entity from its owners (shareholders). This separation provides limited liability protection, meaning shareholders' personal assets are generally protected from business liabilities. Companies are governed by the Australian Securities & Investments Commission (ASIC) and require an Australian Company Number (ACN), marking a more complex and costly setup process.

The company structure facilitates easier capital raising through the sale of shares and can offer tax advantages, as company tax rates might be lower than individual tax rates. However, the benefits of forming a company come with increased regulatory and reporting requirements, as well as the potential for profits to be taxed twice—once at the company level and again when distributed as dividends to shareholders.


A trust is an arrangement where property or income is held by a trustee on behalf of beneficiaries. This structure provides flexibility in income distribution and can offer tax advantages by allocating income to beneficiaries with lower tax rates. Trusts also offer a level of asset protection, as the assets are owned by the trust, not the beneficiaries or trustees personally. However, trusts are complex and costly to establish and maintain, with a significant legal responsibility placed on the trustee.

Find an Accountant that understands Business Structures

With each business structure offering distinct advantages and challenges, choosing the right one is critical. This decision should not be made in isolation but with the guidance of a professional who can provide tailored advice. An accountant, particularly one experienced in small business operations, can offer invaluable insights into the tax implications, asset protection, and regulatory compliance of each structure. They can assist in aligning the choice of structure with your business goals, financial situation, and plans for growth.

In conclusion, navigating the choice of business structure is a critical step for small business owners in Australia. While this guide provides an overview, the complexity of each option and its impact on your business necessitates professional advice. Consulting with an accountant ensures that your business not only complies with Australian laws and tax obligations but is also positioned for success and sustainable growth.

You can hear me chat more about Business Structures on an episode of The Australian Small Business Show - Listen here.


The information in this blog post is purely factual in nature and, therefore, does not constitute, and should not be relied upon as, legal, Tax or financial product advice. None of the information provided considers your personal objectives, financial situation or needs, and you will need to make your own decision about how to proceed. Alternatively, you should consider seeking advice from a Tax Agent, Lawyer, or licenced Financial Adviser.

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